Interesting Membrane Related Science

Pseudomonas stutzeri as an alternative host for membrane proteins

Pseudomonas stutzeri as an alternative host for membrane proteins

Background

Studies on membrane proteins are often hampered by insufficient yields of the protein of interest. Several prokaryotic hosts have been tested for their applicability as production platform but still Escherichia coli by far is the one most commonly used. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that in some cases hosts other than E. coli are more appropriate for certain target proteins.

Results

Here we have developed an expression system for the heterologous production of membrane proteins using a single plasmid-based approach. The gammaproteobacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri was employed as a new production host. We investigated several basic microbiological features crucial for its handling in the laboratory. The organism belonging to bio-safety level one is a close relative of the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosaPseudomonas stutzeri is comparable to E. coli regarding its growth and cultivation conditions. Several effective antibiotics were identified and a protocol for plasmid transformation was established. We present a workflow including cloning of the target proteins, small-scale screening for the best production conditions and finally large-scale production in the milligram range. The GFP folding assay was used for the rapid analysis of protein folding states. In summary, out of 36 heterologous target proteins, 20 were produced at high yields. Additionally, eight transporters derived from P. aeruginosa could be obtained with high yields. Upscaling of protein production and purification of a Gluconate:H+ Symporter (GntP) family transporter (STM2913) from Salmonella enterica to high purity was demonstrated.

Conclusions

Pseudomonas stutzeri is an alternative production host for membrane proteins with success rates comparable to E. coli. However, some proteins were produced with high yields in P. stutzeri but not in E. coliand vice versa. Therefore, P. stutzeri extends the spectrum of useful production hosts for membrane proteins and increases the success rate for highly produced proteins. Using the new pL2020 vector no additional cloning is required to test both hosts in parallel.

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Biosynthesis of the antibiotic nonribosomal peptide penicillin in baker’s yeast

Biosynthesis of the antibiotic nonribosomal peptide penicillin in baker’s yeast

Fungi are a valuable source of enzymatic diversity and therapeutic natural products including antibiotics. Here we engineer the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce and secrete the antibiotic penicillin, a beta-lactam nonribosomal peptide, by taking genes from a filamentous fungus and directing their efficient expression and subcellular localization. Using synthetic biology tools combined with long-read DNA sequencing, we optimize productivity by 50-fold to produce bioactive yields that allow spent S. cerevisiae growth media to have antibacterial action against Streptococcus bacteria. This work demonstrates that S. cerevisiae can be engineered to perform the complex biosynthesis of multicellular fungi, opening up the possibility of using yeast to accelerate rational engineering of nonribosomal peptide antibiotics.

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Whole-cell biocatalysts by design

Whole-cell biocatalysts by design

Whole-cell biocatalysts provide unique advantages and have been widely used for the efficient biosynthesis of value-added fine and bulk chemicals, as well as pharmaceutically active ingredients. What is more, advances in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, together with the rapid development of molecular genetic tools, have brought about a renaissance of whole-cell biocatalysis. These rapid advancements mean that whole-cell biocatalysts can increasingly be rationally designed. Genes of heterologous enzymes or synthetic pathways are increasingly being introduced into microbial hosts, and depending on the complexity of the synthetic pathway or the target products, they can enable the production of value-added chemicals from cheap feedstock. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology efforts aimed at optimizing the existing microbial cell factories concentrate on improving heterologous pathway flux, precursor supply, and cofactor balance, as well as other aspects of cellular metabolism, to enhance the efficiency of biocatalysts. In the present review, we take a critical look at recent developments in whole-cell biocatalysis, with an emphasis on strategies applied to designing and optimizing the organisms that are increasingly modified for efficient production of chemicals.

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Large scale validation of an efficient CRISPR/Cas-based multi gene editing protocol in Escherichia coli

Large scale validation of an efficient CRISPR/Cas-based multi gene editing protocol in Escherichia coli

The exploitation of the CRISPR/Cas9 machinery coupled to lambda (λ) recombinase-mediated homologous recombination (recombineering) is becoming the method of choice for genome editing in E. coli. First proposed by Jiang and co-workers, the strategy has been subsequently fine-tuned by several authors who demonstrated, by using few selected loci, that the efficiency of mutagenesis (number of mutant colonies over total number of colonies analyzed) can be extremely high (up to 100%). However, from published data it is difficult to appreciate the robustness of the technology, defined as the number of successfully mutated loci over the total number of targeted loci. This information is particularly relevant in high-throughput genome editing, where repetition of experiments to rescue missing mutants would be impractical. This work describes a “brute force” validation activity, which culminated in the definition of a robust, simple and rapid protocol for single or multiple gene deletions.

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Microbial response to environmental stresses: from fundamental mechanisms to practical applications

Microbial response to environmental stresses: from fundamental mechanisms to practical applications

Environmental stresses are usually active during the process of microbial fermentation and have significant influence on microbial physiology. Microorganisms have developed a series of strategies to resist environmental stresses. For instance, they maintain the integrity and fluidity of cell membranes by modulating their structure and composition, and the permeability and activities of transporters are adjusted to control nutrient transport and ion exchange. Certain transcription factors are activated to enhance gene expression, and specific signal transduction pathways are induced to adapt to environmental changes. Besides, microbial cells also have well-established repair mechanisms that protect their macromolecules against damages inflicted by environmental stresses. Oxidative, hyperosmotic, thermal, acid, and organic solvent stresses are significant in microbial fermentation. In this review, we summarize the modus operandi by which these stresses act on cellular components, as well as the corresponding resistance mechanisms developed by microorganisms. Then, we discuss the applications of these stress resistance mechanisms on the production of industrially important chemicals. Finally, we prospect the application of systems biology and synthetic biology in the identification of resistant mechanisms and improvement of metabolic robustness of microorganisms in environmental stresses.

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Improved n-butanol production via co-expression of membrane-targeted tilapia metallothionein and the clostridial metabolic pathway in Escherichia coli

Improved n-butanol production via co-expression of membrane-targeted tilapia metallothionein and the clostridial metabolic pathway in Escherichia coli

Background

N-Butanol has favorable characteristics for use as either an alternative fuel or platform chemical. Bio-based n-butanol production using microbes is an emerging technology that requires further development. Although bio-industrial microbes such as Escherichia coli have been engineered to produce n-butanol, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated toxicity may limit productivity. Previously, we show that outer-membrane-targeted tilapia metallothionein (OmpC-TMT) is more effective as an ROS scavenger than human and mouse metallothioneins to reduce oxidative stress in the host cell.

Results

The host strain (BUT1-DE) containing the clostridial n-butanol pathway displayed a decreased growth rate and limited n-butanol productivity, likely due to ROS accumulation. The clostridial n-butanol pathway was co-engineered with inducible OmpC-TMT in E. coli (BUT3-DE) for simultaneous ROS removal, and its effect on n-butanol productivity was examined. The ROS scavenging ability of cells overexpressing OmpC-TMT was examined and showed an approximately twofold increase in capacity. The modified strain improved n-butanol productivity to 320 mg/L, whereas the control strain produced only 95.1 mg/L. Transcriptomic analysis revealed three major KEGG pathways that were significantly differentially expressed in the BUT3-DE strain compared with their expression in the BUT1-DE strain, including genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, fructose and mannose metabolism and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis.

Conclusions

These results indicate that OmpC-TMT can increase n-butanol production by scavenging ROS. The transcriptomic analysis suggested that n-butanol causes quinone malfunction, resulting in oxidative-phosphorylation-related nuo operon downregulation, which would diminish the ability to convert NADH to NAD+ and generate proton motive force. However, fructose and mannose metabolism-related genes (fucA, srlE and srlA) were upregulated, and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis-related genes (pfkB, pgm) were downregulated, which further assisted in regulating NADH/NAD+ redox and preventing additional ATP depletion. These results indicated that more NADH and ATP were required in the n-butanol synthetic pathway. Our study demonstrates a potential approach to increase the robustness of microorganisms and the production of toxic chemicals through the ability to reduce oxidative stress.

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Systems-level understanding of ethanol-induced stresses and adaptation in E. coli

Systems-level understanding of ethanol-induced stresses and adaptation in E. coli

Understanding ethanol-induced stresses and responses in biofuel-producing bacteria at systems level has significant implications in engineering more efficient biofuel producers. We present a computational study of transcriptomic and genomic data of both ethanol-stressed and ethanol-adapted E. coli cells with computationally predicated ethanol-binding proteins and experimentally identified ethanol tolerance genes. Our analysis suggests: (1) ethanol damages cell wall and membrane integrity, causing increased stresses, particularly reactive oxygen species, which damages DNA and reduces the O2 level; (2) decreased cross-membrane proton gradient from membrane damage, coupled with hypoxia, leads to reduced ATP production by aerobic respiration, driving cells to rely more on fatty acid oxidation, anaerobic respiration and fermentation for ATP production; (3) the reduced ATP generation results in substantially decreased synthesis of macromolecules; (4) ethanol can directly bind 213 proteins including transcription factors, altering their functions; (5) all these changes together induce multiple stress responses, reduced biosynthesis, cell viability and growth; and (6) ethanol-adapted E. coli cells restore the majority of these reduced activities through selection of specific genomic mutations and alteration of stress responses, ultimately restoring normal ATP production, macromolecule biosynthesis, and growth. These new insights into the energy and mass balance will inform design of more ethanol-tolerant strains.

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Development of a fast and easy method for Escherichia coli genome editing with CRISPR/Cas9

Development of a fast and easy method for Escherichia coli genome editing with CRISPR/Cas9 tadalafil generico

Abstract

Background
Microbial genome editing is a powerful tool to modify chromosome in way of deletion, insertion or replacement, which is one of the most important techniques in metabolic engineering research. The emergence of CRISPR/Cas9 technique inspires various genomic editing methods. viagra generic

Results
In this research, the goal of development of a fast and easy method for Escherichia coli genome editing with high efficiency is pursued. For this purpose, we designed modular plasmid assembly strategy, compared effects of different length of homologous arms for recombination, and tested different sets of recombinases. The final technique we developed only requires one plasmid construction and one transformation of practice to edit a genomic locus with 3 days and minimal lab work. In addition, the single temperature sensitive plasmid is easy to eliminate for another round of editing. Especially, process of the modularized editing plasmid construction only takes 4 h. cialis coupon 2017

Conclusion
In this study, we developed a fast and easy genome editing procedure based on CRISPR/Cas9 system that only required the work of one plasmid construction and one transformation, which allowed modification of a chromosome locus within 3 days and could be performed continuously for multiple loci. cialis 20mg prix en pharmacie

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Easy regulation of metabolic flux in Escherichia coli using an endogenous type I-E CRISPR-Cas system

Easy regulation of metabolic flux in Escherichia coli using an endogenous type I-E CRISPR-Cas system

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats interference (CRISPRi) is a recently developed powerful tool for gene regulation. In Escherichia coli, the type I CRISPR system expressed endogenously shall be easy for internal regulation without causing metabolic burden in compared with the widely used type II system, which expressed dCas9 as an additional plasmid.

 

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The expression of glycerol facilitators from various yeast species improves growth on glycerol of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

The expression of glycerol facilitators from various yeast species improves growth on glycerol of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Glycerol is an abundant by-product during biodiesel production and additionally has several assets compared to sugars when used as a carbon source for growing microorganisms in the context of biotechnological applications. However, most strains of the platform production organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae grow poorly in synthetic glycerol medium. It has been hypothesized that the uptake of glycerol could be a major bottleneck for the utilization of glycerol in S. cerevisiae. This species exclusively relies on an active transport system for glycerol uptake. This work demonstrates that the expression of predicted glycerol facilitators (Fps1 homologues) from superior glycerol-utilizing yeast species such as Pachysolen tannophilus, Komagatella pastoris, Yarrowia lipolytica and Cyberlindnera jadinii significantly improves the growth performance on glycerol of the previously selected glycerol-consuming S. cerevisiae wild-type strain (CBS 6412-13 A). The maximum specific growth rate increased from 0.13 up to 0.18 h−1and a biomass yield coefficient of 0.56 gDW/gglycerol was observed. These results pave the way for exploiting the assets of glycerol in the production of fuels, chemicals and pharmaceuticals based on baker’s yeast.

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